An online guest lecture given to the students of PSY622 on March 30, 2021.

Lecture Slides

Updated March 26, 2021
Updated April 6, 2021


Andrews, D. A., Zinger, I., Hoge, R. D., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P., & Cullen, F. T. (1990). Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis. Criminology, 28, 369–404.

Brouillette-Alarie, S., Babchishin, K. M., Hanson, R. K., & Helmus, L.-M. (2016). Latent Constructs of the Static-99R and Static-2002R: A Three-Factor Solution. Assessment, 23(1), 96–111.

Brouillette-Alarie, S., & Hanson, R. K. (2015). Comparaison de deux mesures d’évaluation du risque de récidive des délinquants sexuels. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 47(4), 292–304.

Hankivsky, O., & Draker, D. A. (2003). The economic costs of child sexual abuse in Canada: a preliminary analysis. Journal of health & social policy17(2), 1–33.

Hanson, R. K. (1997). The Development of a Brief Actuarial Risk Scale for Sexual Offense Recidivism.

Hanson, R. K., Bourgon, G., Helmus, L.-M., & Hodgson, S. (2009). The Principles of Effective Correctional Treatment Also Apply To Sexual Offenders: A Meta-Analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 865–891. doi:10.1177/0093854809338545

Hanson, R. K., & Bussière, M. T. (1998). Predicting relapse: A meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 348–362.

Hanson, R. K., & Harris, A. J. R. (2000). Where Should We Intervene?: Dynamic Predictors of Sexual Offense Recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27(1), 6–35.

Hanson, R. K., & Harris, A. J. R. (2001). A structured approach to evaluating change among sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse : A Journal of Research and Treatment, 13(2), 105–122.

Hanson, R. K., & Morton-Bourgon, K. E. (2009). The accuracy of recidivism risk assessments for sexual offenders: a meta-analysis of 118 prediction studies. Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 1–21.

Hanson, R. K., Thornton, D., Helmus, L.-M., & Babchishin, K. M. (2016). What Sexual Recidivism Rates Are Associated With Static-99R and Static-2002R Scores? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 28, 218–252. doi:10.1177/1079063215574710

Kelley, S. M., Ambroziak, G., Thornton, D., & Barahal, R. M. (2020). How Do Professionals Assess Sexual Recidivism Risk? An Updated Survey of Practices. Sexual Abuse, 32(1), 3–29.

Mann, R. E., Hanson, R. K., & Thornton, D. (2010). Assessing risk for sexual recidivism: some proposals on the nature of psychologically meaningful risk factors. Sexual Abuse : A Journal of Research and Treatment, 22, 191–217. doi:10.1177/1079063210366039

Martinson, R. (1974). What works? Questions and answers about prison reform. The Public Interest, 35(c), 1–33.

Phenix, A, Fernandez, Y, Harris, AJR, Helmus, M, Hanson, RK, & Thornton, D. (2017). Static-99R Coding Rules Revised-2016 (Research Report: 2017-R012). Ottawa: Public Safety Canada.

Schmucker, M., & Lösel, F. (2015). The effects of sexual offender treatment on recidivism: an international meta-analysis of sound quality evaluations. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 11, 597–630. doi:10.1007/s11292-015-9241-z

Soldino, V., & Carbonell-vayá, E. J. (2017). Effect of treatment on sex offenders ’ recidivism : a meta-analysis. Anales de Psicología, 33(3), 578–588. doi:10.6018/analesps.33.2.267961


Select References for Pedophilia as a Sexual Orientation

Alanko, K., Salo, B., Mokros, A., & Santtila, P. (2013). Evidence for Heritability of Adult Men’s Sexual Interest in Youth under Age 16 from a Population-Based Extended Twin Design. Journal of Sexual Medicine10(4), 1090–1099.

Bailey, J. M., & Hsu, K. J. (2017). Orienting Basic Research on Chronophilias. Archives of Sexual Behavior46(1), 23–26.

Beier, K. M., & Amelung, T. (2017). A German Sexological Perspective on Male Chronophilias. Archives of Sexual Behavior46(1), 27–28.

Berlin, F. S. (2014). Pedophilia and DSM-5: the importance of clearly defining the nature of a Pedophilic Disorder. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law42(4), 404–407. Retrieved from

Blanchard, R. (2013). A dissenting opinion on DSM-5 pedophilic disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior42(5), 675–678.

Fedoroff, J. P. (2018). More Puzzles: A Response to Seto’s (2017) “The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias.” Archives of Sexual Behavior47(8), 2171–2173.

Grundmann, D., Krupp, J., Scherner, G., Amelung, T., & Beier, K. M. (2016). Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles. Archives of Sexual Behavior45(5), 1–10.

Imhoff, R., Banse, R., & Schmidt, A. F. (2017). Toward a Theoretical Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Motivation. Archives of Sexual Behavior46(1), 29–33.

Janssen, D. F. (2017). “Chronophilia”: Appreciating 150 Years of Puzzle-Solving. Archives of Sexual Behavior46(1), 35–38.

Konrad, A., Kuhle, L. F., Amelung, T., & Beier, K. M. (2018). Is Emotional Congruence With Children Associated With Sexual Offending in Pedophiles and Hebephiles From the Community? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment30(1), 3–22.

Martijn, F. M., Babchishin, K. M., Pullman, L. E., & Seto, M. C. (2020). Sexual Attraction and Falling in Love in Persons with Pedohebephilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior49(4), 1305–1318.

Mokros, A. (2017). The Chronophilia Conundrum: Continuum or Epiphenomenon? Archives of Sexual Behavior46(1), 43–45.

Seto, M. C. (2012). Is pedophilia a sexual orientation? Archives of Sexual Behavior41(1), 231–236.

Seto, M. C. (2017). The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias. Archives of Sexual Behavior46(1), 3–22.

Seto, M. C. (2017). The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias: Response to Commentaries. Archives of Sexual Behavior46(1), 53–58.

Seto, M. C. (2018). Reply to “More Puzzles: A Response to Seto’s (2017) ‘The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias’” (Fedoroff, 2018). Archives of Sexual Behavior47(8), 2175–2176.

Tozdan, S., Kalt, A., Dekker, A., Keller, L. B., Thiel, S., Müller, J. L., & Briken, P. (2018). Why Information Matters: Examining the Consequences of Suggesting That Pedophilia Is Immutable. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology62(5), 1241–1261.

Walker, A. (2020). “I’m Not like That, So Am I Gay?” The Use of Queer-Spectrum Identity Labels Among Minor-Attracted People. Journal of Homosexuality67(12), 1736–1759.

Walton, J. S., & Duff, S. (2017). “I’m not homosexual or heterosexual, I’m paedosexual”: exploring sexual preference for children using interpretive phenomenology. The Journal of Forensic Practice19(2), 151–161.

Selected References related to the Intersection between Ethnicity, Systemic Oppression & Colonialism, the Criminal Justice System, and Risk-Relevant Propensities for Crime

Babchishin, K. M., Blais, J., & Helmus, L. (2012). Do static risk factors predict differently for Aboriginal sex offenders? A multi-site comparison using the original and revised Static-99 and Static-2002 scales. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 54, 1-43. doi:10.3138/cjccj.2010.E.40

Bhatty, A. (2012, May 25). Canada prepares for an Asian future. BBC News. Retrieved from

Benoit, C., Shumka, L., Phillips, R., Kennedy, M., & Belle-Isle, L. (2014). Issue brief: Sexual violence against women in Canada. Federal-Provincial-Territorial Senior Officials for the Status of Women. Retrieved from

Blake, S. M., Ledsky, R., Goodenow, C., & O’Donnell, L. (2001). Recency of immigration, substance use, and sexual behavior among Massachusetts adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 794. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.5.794

Carson, E. A. & Sabol, W. J. (2012). Prisoners in 2011. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from

Cernovsky, Z. Z., & Litman, L. C. (1993). Re-analyses of JP Rushton’s crime data. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 35(1), 31-36.

Choi, K-S., Choo, K., Choi, J., &Woo, Y. (2015). Understanding the dynamics of the victim-perpetrator relationship in child sexual abuse: An examination of the child sex abuse victimization data in South Korea. Asian Journal of Criminology, 10, 79-97. doi:10.1007/s11417-015-9202-5.

Ellerby, L. A., & MacPherson, P. (2002). Exploring the profiles of aboriginal sexual offenders: Contrasting aboriginal and non-aboriginal sexual offenders to determine unique client characteristics and potential implications for sex offender assessment and treatment strategies. Research Report. Research Branch, Corporate Development, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa. Retrieved from

Fang, X., Fry, D. A., Ji, K., Finkelhor, D., Chen, J., Lannen, P., & Dunne, M. P. (2015). The burden of child maltreatment in China: a systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 93, 176-185. doi:10.2471/BLT.14.140970

Finkelhor, D., Ji, K., Mikton, C., & Dunne, M. (2013). Explaining lower rates of sexual abuse in china. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 852-860. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.07.006

Forbes, S. M. (2007). Race differences in scores of actuarial measures of sex offender risk assessment (Order No. 3293542). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304837798). 

Gabbidon, S. L., & Greene, H. T. (2009). Race, crime, and justice: A reader (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE publications, Inc.

Hall, G. C. N., Windover, A. K., & Maramba, G. G. (1998). Sexual aggression among Asian Americans: Risk and protective factors. Cultural diversity and mental health, 4, 305-319. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.4.4.305

Harrison, P. M., & Beck, A. (2005). Prisoners in 2005. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from

Hartney, C., & Vuoung, L. (2009). Created equal: Racial and ethnic disparities in the us criminal justice system.Retrieved from

Helmus, L., Babchishin, K. M., & Blais, J. (2012). Predictive accuracy of dynamic risk factors for aboriginal and non-aboriginal sex offenders: An exploratory comparison using STABLE-2007. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56, 856-876. doi:10.1177/0306624X11414693

Jimenez, J. A., & Abreu, J. M. (2003). Race and sex effects on attitudinal perceptions of acquaintance rape. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 252-256. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.50.2.252

Långström, N. (2004). Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 16, 107-120. doi:10.1023/B:SEBU.0000023060.61402

LaPrairie, C. (1997). Reconstructing theory: Explaining aboriginal over-representation in the criminal justice system in Canada. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology30, 39–54. doi:10.1177/000486589703000104

Lefley, H. P., Scott, C. S., Llabre, M., & Hicks, D. (1993). Cultural beliefs about rape and victims’ response in three ethnic groups. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63(4), 623-632.

Lee, M. T., Martinez, Jr., R., & Rosenfeld, R. (2001). Does immigration increase homicide? Negative evidence from three border cities. Sociological Quarterly, 42, 559-580. doi:10.1525/tsq.2001.42.4.559

Muckle, R. J. (2014). The first nations of british columbia: An anthropological overview (3rd ed.). Vancouver, British Columbia: University of British Columbia Press.

Okazaki, S. (2002). Influences of culture on Asian Americans’ sexuality. Journal of sex research, 39(1), 34-41. Retrieved from

Olver, M. E., Klepfisz, G., Stockdale, K. C., Kingston, D. A., Nicholaichuk, T. P., & Wong, S. C. P. (2016). Some notes on the validation of VRS-SO static scores. Journal of Sexual Aggression22, 147–160. doi:10.1080/13552600.2015.1116625

Olver, M. E., Sowden, J. N., Kingston, D. A., Nicholaichuk, T. P., Gordon, A., Christofferson, S. M. B., & Wong, S. C. (2016). Predictive accuracy of violence risk scale–sexual offender version risk and change scores in treated Canadian aboriginal and non-aboriginal sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. doi:10.1177/1079063216649594

Owusu-Bempah, A. & Wortley, S. (2014) Race, criminality and criminal justice in Canada. In S. Bucerious  & M. Tonry  (Eds), The Oxford Handbook on Ethnicity, Crime and Immigration (pp. 281–320). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199859016.013.020

Perreault, S. (2009). The incarceration of Aboriginal people in adult correctional services adult correctional services in Canada, 2008/2009. Juristat29. Catalogue no. 85-002-X.

Phillips, C. (2003). Racism, ethnicity and criminology. Developing Minority Perspectives. British Journal of Criminology43, 269–290. doi:10.1093/bjc/43.2.269

Roberts, J. V., & Gabor, T. (1990). Lombrosian wine in a new bottle: Research on crime and race. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 32 (2), 291-313.

Rushton, J. P. (1989). Race differences in sexuality and their correlates: Another look and physiological models. Journal of Research in Personality, 23, 35-54. 

Smallbone, S., & Rallings, M. (2013). Short-term predictive validity of the static-99 and static-99-R for indigenous and nonindigenous Australian sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 25, 302-316. doi:10.1177/1079063212472937

Steffensmeir, D., Feldmeyer, B., Harris, C. T., & Ulmer, J. T. (2011). Reassessing trends in black violent crime, 1980-2008: Sorting out the “Hispanic effect” in uniform crime reports arrests, national crime victimization survey offender estimates, and U.S. prisoner counts. Criminology, 49, 197-251. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00222.x

Varela, J. G., Boccaccini, M. T., Murrie, D. C., Caperton, J. D., & Gonzalez, E., Jr. (2013). Do the Static-99 and Static-99R perform similarly for White, Black, and Latino sexual offenders? International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 12, 231-243. doi:10.1080/14999013.2013.846950

West, J., & Templer, D. I. (1994). Child molestation, rape, and ethnicity. Psychological Reports, 75, 1326. doi:10.2466/pr0.1994.75.3.1326

Whitaker, D. J., Le, B., Karl Hanson, R., Baker, C. K., McMahon, P. M., Ryan, G., . . . Rice, D. D. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 529-548. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.08.005

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., & Mitchell, K. (2011). Child pornography possessors: Trends in offender and case characteristics. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 23, 22-42. doi:0.1177/1079063210372143

Useful Links

Sexual Behaviours Clinic, CAMH


Standardized Risk Language Resources

Main Report

5 Minute Summary -> Do you speak the common [risk] language?

Prevention Project Dunkelfeld

Website: Troubled Desire

Commercial from lecture

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